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Last update: December 21, 2021

QBFT

Hyperledger Besu implements the QBFT proof of authority (PoA) consensus protocol. Private networks can use QBFT.

Warning

QBFT is currently an early access feature. It is not recommended for production networks with business critical impact.

In QBFT networks, approved accounts, known as validators, validate transactions and blocks. Validators take turns to create the next block. Before inserting the block onto the chain, a super-majority (greater than 66%) of validators must first sign the block.

Warning

Configure your network to ensure you never lose ⅓ or more of your validators. If more than ⅓ of validators stop participating, new blocks are no longer created, and the network stalls. It may take significant time to recover once nodes are restarted.

Tip

You can use a plugin to securely store a validator’s key using the --security-module option.

View the QBFT tutorial for step-by-step instructions to create a QBFT network.

Validators

Minimum number of validators

QBFT requires four validators to be Byzantine fault tolerant. Byzantine fault tolerance is the ability for a blockchain network to function correctly and reach consensus despite nodes failing or propagating incorrect information to peers.

Validator management

QBFT provides two methods (modes) to manage validators:

  • Block header validator selection - Existing validators propose and vote to add or remove validators using the JSON-RPC calls. Adding or removing a validator requires a majority vote (greater than 50%) of validators.

  • Contract validator selection - Use a smart contract to specify the validators used to propose and validate blocks.

Users can create their own smart contracts to manage validators based on their organizational requirements. View the example smart contract for more information on how to create one.

Important

You cannot use the JSON-RPC calls to add or remove validators when using a smart contract to manage nodes. You must interact with the contract functions using transactions.

You can pre-deploy the validator smart contract in a new QBFT network by specifying the contract details in the genesis file. For existing QBFT networks you need to compile and deploy the contract using a transaction, then obtain the contract address from the receipt and use that in a transition.

You can use transitions to swap between block header validator selection and contract validator selection in an existing network.

For block header validator selection, initial validators are configured in the genesis file’s extraData property, whereas the initial validators when using the contract validator selection method are configured in the genesis file’s storage section.

Genesis file

To use QBFT, define a genesis file that contains the QBFT properties.

The genesis file differs depending on the validator management method you intend to use.

Note

You can use a transitions to change the blockperiodseconds or validator management method of the network at a later time.

Example QBFT genesis files

{
"config": {
    "chainid": 1337,
    "homesteadBlock": 0,
    "eip150Block": 0,
    "eip155Block": 0,
    "eip158Block": 0,
    "byzantiumBlock": 0,
    "qbft": {
        "epochlength": 30000,
        "blockperiodseconds": 5,
        "requesttimeoutseconds": 10
    }
},
"nonce": "0x0",
"timestamp": "0x5b3d92d7",
"extraData": "0xf87aa00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000f8549464a702e6263b7297a96638cac6ae65e6541f4169943923390ad55e90c237593b3b0e401f3b08a0318594aefdb9a738c9f433e5b6b212a6d62f6370c2f69294c7eeb9a4e00ce683cf93039b212648e01c6c6b78c080c0",
"gasLimit": "0x29b92700",
"difficulty": "0x1",
"mixHash": "0x63746963616c2062797a616e74696e65206661756c7420746f6c6572616e6365",
"coinbase": "0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000",
"alloc": {
    "64d9be4177f418bcf4e56adad85f33e3a64efe22": {
        "balance": "0x446c3b15f9926687d2c40534fdb564000000000000"
    },
    "9f66f8a0f0a6537e4a36aa1799673ea7ae97a166": {
        "balance": "0x446c3b15f9926687d2c40534fdb564000000000000"
    },
    "a7f25969fb6f3d5ac09a88862c90b5ff664557a7": {
        "balance": "0x446c3b15f9926687d2c40534fdb564000000000000"
    },
    "f4bbfd32c11c9d63e9b4c77bb225810f840342df": {
        "balance": "0x446c3b15f9926687d2c40534fdb564000000000000"
    }
},
"number": "0x0",
"gasUsed": "0x0",
"parentHash": "0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000"
}
{
"config": {
    "chainid": 1337,
    "homesteadBlock": 0,
    "eip150Block": 0,
    "eip155Block": 0,
    "eip158Block": 0,
    "byzantiumBlock": 0,
    "qbft": {
        "epochlength": 30000,
        "blockperiodseconds": 5,
        "requesttimeoutseconds": 10,
        "validatorcontractaddress": "0x0000000000000000000000000000000000007777"
    }
},
"nonce": "0x0",
"timestamp": "0x5b3d92d7",
"extraData": "0xe5a00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000c0c080c0",
"gasLimit": "0x29b92700",
"difficulty": "0x1",
"mixHash": "0x63746963616c2062797a616e74696e65206661756c7420746f6c6572616e6365",
"coinbase": "0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000",
"alloc": {
    "64d9be4177f418bcf4e56adad85f33e3a64efe22": {
        "balance": "0x446c3b15f9926687d2c40534fdb564000000000000"
    },
    "9f66f8a0f0a6537e4a36aa1799673ea7ae97a166": {
        "balance": "0x446c3b15f9926687d2c40534fdb564000000000000"
    },
    "a7f25969fb6f3d5ac09a88862c90b5ff664557a7": {
        "balance": "0x446c3b15f9926687d2c40534fdb564000000000000"
    },
    "f4bbfd32c11c9d63e9b4c77bb225810f840342df": {
        "balance": "0x446c3b15f9926687d2c40534fdb564000000000000"
    },
    "0x0000000000000000000000000000000000007777": {
        "comment": "validator smart contract",
        "balance": "0",
        "code": "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        "storage": {
            "0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000": "0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000002",
            "290decd9548b62a8d60345a988386fc84ba6bc95484008f6362f93160ef3e563": "0000000000000000000000009a6d82ef3912d5ab60473124bccd2f2a640769d7",
            "290decd9548b62a8d60345a988386fc84ba6bc95484008f6362f93160ef3e564": "00000000000000000000000065463bf6268e5cc409b6501ec846487b935a1446",
            "aedead2c33b41c31b4afd2246c6bf5131c209d4b0ca6c2247778ac7be7443a00": "0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000101",
            "33784757d5da236467d27a7c5b0cc5aa9026ca3b79e29106a67a5e93c292a523": "0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000010101",
            "35aba1eb0bbe741ac01e5b6ce584bc042b1a0b7d115eb8f7dd02a1a1de2fd14d": "000000000000000000000000fe3b557e8fb62b89f4916b721be55ceb828dbd73",
            "0d9217f0a1f7c602fd67052d20171ff73b156d1b87ea258cb6a5d94f71298158": "000000000000000000000000627306090abab3a6e1400e9345bc60c78a8bef57",
            "0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000003": "0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000002"
        },
        "version": "0x01"
    }
},
"number": "0x0",
"gasUsed": "0x0",
"parentHash": "0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000"
}

The QBFT properties are:

  • blockperiodseconds - The minimum block time, in seconds.
  • epochlength - The number of blocks after which to reset all votes.
  • requesttimeoutseconds - The timeout for each consensus round before a round change, in seconds.
  • blockreward - Optional reward amount in Wei to reward the beneficiary. Defaults to zero (0). Can be specified as a hexadecimal (with 0x prefix) or decimal string value. If set, then all nodes on the network must use the identical value.
  • validatorcontractaddress - Address of the validator smart contract. Required only if using a contract validator selection. The address must be identical to the address in the alloc section. This option can also be used in the transitions configuration item if swapping validator management methods in an existing network.
  • miningbeneficiary - Optional beneficiary of the blockreward. Defaults to the validator that proposes the block. If set, then all nodes on the network must use the same beneficiary.
  • extraData - RLP encoded extra data.

Caution

The miningbeneficiary property cannot be updated once your network is started.

We do not recommend changing epochlength in a running network. Changing the epochlength after genesis can result in illegal blocks.

The properties with specific values in the QBFT genesis files are:

  • difficulty - 0x1
  • mixHash - 0x63746963616c2062797a616e74696e65206661756c7420746f6c6572616e6365 for Istanbul block identification.

To start a node on a QBFT private network, use the --genesis-file option to specify the custom genesis file.

Extra data

The extraData property is an RLP encoding of:

  • 32 bytes of vanity data.
  • If using:
  • Any validator votes. No vote is included in the genesis block.
  • The round the block was created on. The round in the genesis block is 0.
  • A list of seals of the validators (signed block hashes). No seals are included in the genesis block.

When using block header validator selection, the important information in the genesis block extra data is the list of validators. All other details have empty values in the genesis block.

Important

When using contract validator selection to manage validators, the list of validators is configured in the alloc property’s storage section. View the example smart contract for more information on how to generate the storage section.

Formally, extraData in the genesis block contains:

  • If using block header validator selection: RLP([32 bytes Vanity, List<Validators>, No Vote, Round=Int(0), 0 Seals]).
  • If using contract validator selection: RLP([32 bytes Vanity, 0 Validators, No Vote, Round=Int(0), 0 Seals]).

Info

RLP encoding is a space-efficient object serialization scheme used in Ethereum.

Generating extra data

To generate the extraData RLP string for inclusion in the genesis file, use the rlp encode Besu subcommand.

Example

besu rlp encode --from=toEncode.json --type=QBFT_EXTRA_DATA

Where the toEncode.json file contains a list of the initial validators, in ascending order. To write the validator address and copy it to the toEncode.json file, use the public-key export-address Besu subcommand. For example:

Initial validators in toEncode.json file

[
    "0x4592c8e45706cc08b8f44b11e43cba0cfc5892cb",
    "0x06e23768a0f59cf365e18c2e0c89e151bcdedc70",
    "0xc5327f96ee02d7bcbc1bf1236b8c15148971e1de",
    "0xab5e7f4061c605820d3744227eed91ff8e2c8908"
]

Copy the RLP encoded data to the extraData property in the genesis file.

RLP encoded data

0xf87aa00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000f854944592c8e45706cc08b8f44b11e43cba0cfc5892cb9406e23768a0f59cf365e18c2e0c89e151bcdedc7094c5327f96ee02d7bcbc1bf1236b8c15148971e1de94ab5e7f4061c605820d3744227eed91ff8e2c8908c080c0

When you start the network, the four nodes previously specified in toEncode.json are the validators for the network.

Block time

When the protocol receives a new chain head, the block time (blockperiodseconds) timer starts. When blockperiodseconds expires, the round timeout (requesttimeoutseconds) timer starts and the protocol proposes a new block.

If requesttimeoutseconds expires before adding the proposed block, a round change occurs, with the block time and timeout timers reset. The timeout period for the new round is two times requesttimeoutseconds. The timeout period continues to double each time a round fails to add a block.

Usually, the protocol adds the proposed block before reaching requesttimeoutseconds. A new round then starts, resetting the block time and round timeout timers. When blockperiodseconds expires, the protocol proposes the next new block.

Warning

If more than ⅓ of validators stop participating, new blocks can no longer be created and requesttimeoutseconds doubles with each round change. The quickest method to resume block production is to restart all validators, which resets requesttimeoutseconds to its genesis value.

Once blockperiodseconds is over, the time from proposing a block to adding the block is small (usually around one second) even in networks with geographically dispersed validators.

Tuning block timeout

To tune the block timeout for your network deployment:

  1. Set blockperiodseconds to your desired block time and requesttimeoutseconds to two times blockperiodseconds.
  2. Reduce requesttimeoutseconds until you start to see round changes occurring.
  3. Increase requesttimeoutseconds to the value where round changes are no longer occurring.

Tip

View TRACE logs to see round change log messages.

Use a transition to update the blockperiodseconds in an existing network.

Optional configuration options

Optional configuration options in the genesis file are:

  • messageQueueLimit - In large networks with limited resources, increasing the message queue limit might help with message activity surges. The default is 1000.
  • duplicateMessageLimit - If the same node is retransmitting messages, increasing the duplicate message limit might reduce the number of retransmissions. A value of two to three times the number of validators is usually enough. The default is 100.
  • futureMessagesLimit - The future messages buffer holds messages for a future chain height. For large networks, increasing the future messages limit might be useful. The default is 1000.
  • futureMessagesMaxDistance - The maximum height from the current chain height for buffering messages in the future messages buffer. The default is 10.

Transitions

The transitions genesis configuration item allows you to specify a future block number at which to change QBFT network configuration in an existing network. For example, you can update the block time, or swap the validator management methods.

Caution

Do not specify a transition block in the past. Specifying a transition block in the past could result in unexpected behavior, such as causing the network to fork.

Configure block time on an existing network

To update an existing network with a new blockperiodseconds:

  1. Stop all nodes in the network.
  2. In the genesis file, add the transitions configuration item where:

    • <FutureBlockNumber> is the upcoming block at which to change blockperiodseconds.
    • <NewValue> is the updated value for blockperiodseconds.

    Transitions configuration

    {
      "config": {
         ...
         "qbft": {
           "blockperiodseconds": 2,
           "epochlength": 30000,
           "requesttimeoutseconds": 4
         },
         "transitions": {
           "qbft": [
           {
             "block": <FutureBlockNumber>,
             "blockperiodseconds": <NewValue>
           }
           ]
         }
      },
      ...
    }
    
    {
      "config": {
         ...
         "qbft": {
           "blockperiodseconds": 2,
           "epochlength": 30000,
           "requesttimeoutseconds": 4
         },
         "transitions": {
           "qbft": [
           {
             "block": 1240,
             "blockperiodseconds": 4
           }
           ]
         }
      },
      ...
    }
    
  3. Restart all nodes in the network using the updated genesis file.

  4. To verify the changes after the transition block, call qbft_getValidatorsByBlockNumber, specifying latest.

Configure block rewards on an existing network deployment

To update an existing network with a new blockreward:

  1. Stop all nodes in the network.
  2. In the genesis file, add the transitions configuration item where:

    • <FutureBlockNumber> is the upcoming block at which to change blockreward.
    • <NewValue> is the updated value for blockreward.

    Transitions configuration

    {
      "config": {
         ...
         "qbft": {
           "blockperiodseconds": 2,
           "epochlength": 30000,
           "requesttimeoutseconds": 4
           "blockreward": "5000000000000000"
         },
         "transitions": {
           "qbft": [
           {
             "block": <FutureBlockNumber>,
             "blockreward": <NewValue>
           },
           {
             "block": <FutureBlockNumber>,
             "blockreward": <NewValue>
           },
           {
             "block": <FutureBlockNumber>,
             "blockreward": <NewValue>
           }
           ]
         }
      },
      ...
    }
    
    {
      "config": {
         ...
         "qbft": {
           "blockperiodseconds": 2,
           "epochlength": 30000,
           "requesttimeoutseconds": 4
           "blockreward": "5000000000000000"
         },
         "transitions": {
           "qbft": [
           {
             "block": 10,
             "blockreward": "6000000000000000"
           },
           {
             "block": 15,
             "blockreward": "75000000000000000"
           },
           {
             "block": 20,
             "blockreward": "0"
           }
           ]
         }
      },
      ...
    }
    

    Note

    You can add multiple blockreward updates in one transition object by specifying multiple future blocks.

  3. Restart all nodes in the network using the updated genesis file.

Swap validator management methods

To swap between block header validator selection and contract validator selection methods in an existing network:

  1. Stop all nodes in the network.
  2. In the genesis file, add the transitions configuration item where:

    • <FutureBlockNumber> is the upcoming block at which to change the validator selection method.
    • <SelectionMode> is the validator selection mode to switch to. Valid options are contract and blockheader.
    • <ContractAddress> is the smart contract address, if switching to the contract validator selection method.

    Transitions configuration

    {
      "config": {
         ...
         "qbft": {
           "blockperiodseconds": 5,
           "epochlength": 30000,
           "requesttimeoutseconds": 10
         },
         "transitions": {
           "qbft": [
           {
             "block": <FutureBlockNumber>,
             "validatorselectionmode": <SelectionMode>,
             "validatorcontractaddress": <ContractAddress>"
           }
           ]
         }
      },
      ...
    }
    
    {
      "config": {
         ...
         "qbft": {
           "blockperiodseconds": 5,
           "epochlength": 30000,
           "requesttimeoutseconds": 10
         },
         "transitions": {
           "qbft": [
           {
             "block": 102885,
             "validatorselectionmode": "contract",
             "validatorcontractaddress": "0x0000000000000000000000000000000000007777"
           }
           ]
         }
      },
      ...
    }
    
  3. Restart all nodes in the network using the updated genesis file.

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