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Date of last update: August 8, 2022

Sign privacy marker transactions

You can sign privacy marker transactions (PMTs) with either a random key or a specified key. To sign privacy marker transactions with a specified private key, use --privacy-marker-transaction-signing-key-file when starting Hyperledger Besu.


The private key file can be the same file used by --node-private-key-file, or a different key file to identify who signed the privacy marker transaction.

In networks where you pay gas, you must specify a key and the associated account must contain adequate funds.

In free gas networks, to provide further anonymity by signing each privacy marker transaction with a different random key, exclude the --privacy-marker-transaction-signing-key-file command line option when starting Besu.

Using account permissioning and privacy

You can’t use account permissioning with random key signing.

If using account permissioning and privacy, a signing key must be specified using the --privacy-marker-transaction-signing-key-file command line option and the corresponding public key included in the accounts allowlist.


Besu signs privacy marker transactions during the private transaction process.