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Date of last update: September 14, 2022

Use JSON-RPC over HTTP, WebSocket, and IPC

To enable JSON-RPC over HTTP or WebSocket, use the --rpc-http-enabled and --rpc-ws-enabled options.

To enable JSON-RPC over an IPC socket, use the --Xrpc-ipc-enabled option.

Caution

--Xrpc-ipc-enabled is an early access option.

Besu JSON-RPC APIs documentation in Postman format

View the Besu JSON-RPC APIs documentation in the Postman format and obtain example requests in multiple coding languages.

Run in Postman

Click the following button to fork the collection and run requests directly on your local network.

Run in Postman.

Download collection

Alternatively you can download the JSON collection file.

Geth console

The geth console is a REPL (Read, Evaluate, & Print Loop) JavaScript console. Use JSON-RPC APIs supported by geth and Hyperledger Besu directly in the console.

To use the geth console with Besu:

  1. Start Besu with the --rpc-http-enabled or --Xrpc-ipc-enabled option.
  2. Specify which APIs to enable using the --rpc-http-api or --Xrpc-ipc-api option.
  3. Start the geth console specifying the JSON-RPC endpoint:

Example

geth attach http://localhost:8545
geth attach /path/to/besu.ipc

Use the geth console to call JSON-RPC API methods that geth and Besu share.

Example

eth.syncing

JSON-RPC authentication

Besu disables Authentication by default.

HTTP and WebSocket requests

HTTP

To make RPC requests over HTTP, you can use curl.

Example

curl -X POST --data '{"jsonrpc":"2.0","id":<request-ID>,"method":"<method-name>","params":[<method-parameters>]}' <JSON-RPC-http-endpoint:port>
curl -X POST --data '{"jsonrpc":"2.0","id":"1","method":"eth_blockNumber","params":[]}' http://127.0.0.1:8555
{
  "jsonrpc":"2.0",
  "id":"1",
  "result":"0x60e"
}

You can use curl to make multiple RPC requests over HTTP at the same time. Send the requests as an array, and receive an array of responses.

Example

curl -X POST --data '[{"jsonrpc":"2.0","id":"1","method":"eth_blockNumber","params":[]}, {"jsonrpc":"2.0","id":"2","method":"admin_peers","params":[]}]' http://127.0.0.1:8555
[{
  "jsonrpc":"2.0",
  "id":"1",
  "result":"0x60e"
},{
  "jsonrpc":"2.0",
  "id":"2",
  "result":[]
}]

WebSocket

To make RPC requests over WebSocket, you can use wscat, a Node.js based command-line tool.

First connect to the WebSocket server using wscat (you only need to connect once per session):

wscat -c ws://<JSON-RPC-ws-endpoint:port>

After you establish a connection, the terminal displays a ‘>’ prompt. Send individual requests as a JSON data package at each prompt.

Example

{"jsonrpc":"2.0","id":<request-ID>,"method":"<method-name>","params":[<method-parameters>]}
{"jsonrpc":"2.0","id":"1","method":"eth_blockNumber","params":[]}
{
  "jsonrpc":"2.0",
  "id":"1",
  "result":"0x23"
}

You can use wscat to make multiple RPC requests over WebSocket at the same time. Send the requests as an array, and receive an array of responses.

Example

[{"jsonrpc":"2.0","id":"1","method":"eth_blockNumber","params":[]}, {"jsonrpc":"2.0","id":"2","method":"admin_peers","params":[]}]
[{
  "jsonrpc":"2.0",
  "id":"1",
  "result":"0x23"
},{
  "jsonrpc":"2.0",
  "id":"2",
  "result":[]
}]

Note

wscat does not support headers. Authentication requires you to pass an authentication token in the request header. To use authentication with WebSocket, you need an app that supports headers.

Readiness and liveness endpoints

Besu provides readiness and liveness endpoints to confirm the Besu node status. Both return a 200 OK status when ready or live and a 503 Service Unavailable status if not ready or live.

Readiness

By default, the readiness check requires a connected peer and the node to be within two blocks of the best known block. If you have disabled P2P communication, you do not need peers. A live node with P2P disabled is always ready.

Use the query parameters minPeers and maxBlocksBehind to adjust the number of peers required and the number of blocks tolerance.

http://<JSON-RPC-HTTP-endpoint:port>/readiness
curl -v 'http://localhost:8545/readiness'
curl -v 'http://localhost:8545/readiness?minPeers=0&maxBlocksBehind=10'

Liveness

The liveness check requires the JSON-RPC server to be up. You can use the endpoint to verify that the node can respond to RPC calls. The status in the response will always be UP.

http://<JSON-RPC-HTTP-endpoint:port>/liveness
curl -v 'http://localhost:8545/liveness'

API methods enabled by default

Besu enables the ETH, NET, and WEB3 API methods by default.

To enable the ADMIN, CLIQUE, DEBUG, EEA, IBFT, MINER, PERM, PLUGINS, PRIV, TRACE, and TXPOOL API methods, use the --rpc-http-api, --rpc-ws-api, or --Xrpc-ipc-api options.

Caution

--Xrpc-ipc-api is an early access option.

Block parameter

When you make requests that might have different results depending on the block accessed, the block parameter specifies the block. Methods such as eth_getTransactionByBlockNumberAndIndex have a block parameter.

The block parameter can have the following values:

  • blockNumber : quantity - The block number, specified in hexadecimal or decimal. 0 represents the genesis block.
  • earliest : tag - The earliest (genesis) block.
  • latest : tag - The last block mined.
  • pending : tag - The last block mined plus pending transactions. Use only with eth_getTransactionCount.
  • finalized : tag - The most recent crypto-economically secure block. It cannot be reorganized outside manual intervention driven by community coordination.
  • safe : tag - The most recent block that is safe from reorganization under honest majority and certain synchronicity assumptions.

Note

If synchronizing in FAST mode, most historical world state data is unavailable. Any methods attempting to access unavailable world state data return null.